Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation 12 1 : McLaughlin, J. Logic models: a tool for telling your program's performance story. Moyer, A. Facilitating the shift to population-based public health programs: innovation through the use of framework and logic model tools. Rush, B. Program logic models: expanding their role and structure for program planning and evaluation.
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Taylor-Powell, E. Evaluating collaboratives: reaching the potential. United Way of America Measuring program outcomes: a practical approach. Western Center for the Application of Prevention Technologies. Wong-Reiger, D. Using program logic models to plan and evaluate education and prevention programs.
Evaluation Methods Sourcebook II. Ottawa, Ontario, Canadian Evaluation Society.
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Community Readiness Section The Strategic Prevention Framework Section Health Impact Assessment Section Building Compassionate Communities Section The Tool Box needs your help to remain available. Toggle navigation Chapter Sections. Section 1. Learn how to create and use a logic model, a visual representation of your initiative's activities, outputs, and expected outcomes. What is a logic model? When can a logic model be used? How do you create a logic model? What makes a logic model effective? What are the benefits and limitations of logic modeling? Some other names include: road map, conceptual map, or pathways map mental model blueprint for change framework for action or program framework program theory or program hypothesis theoretical underpinning or rationale causal chain or chain of causation theory of change or model of change Each mapping or modeling technique uses a slightly different approach, but they all rest on a foundation of logic - specifically, the logic of how change happens.
A word about logic The word "logic" has many definitions. The logic in logic modeling Like a road map, a logic model shows the route traveled or steps taken to reach a certain destination. What motivates the need for change? This can also be expressed as the problems or opportunities that the program is addressing. For On Track, the community focused advocates on the mission of enhancing healthy youth development to improve the high-school dropout rate.
Context , or conditions. What is the climate in which change will take place? How will new policies and programs for On Track be aligned with existing ones? What trends compete with the effort to engage youth in positive activities? What is the political and economic climate for investing in youth development? Inputs , or resources or infrastructure. What raw materials will be used to conduct the effort or initiative? In On Track, these materials are coordinator and volunteers in the mentoring program, agreements with participating school districts, and the endorsement of parent groups and community agencies.
Inputs can also include constraints on the program, such as regulations or funding gaps, which are barriers to your objectives. Activities , or interventions. What will the initiative do with its resources to direct the course of change?
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In our example, the program will train volunteer mentors and refer young people who might benefit from a mentor. Your intervention, and thus your logic model, should be guided by a clear analysis of risk and protective factors. What evidence is there that the activities were performed as planned? Indicators might include the number of mentors trained and youth referred, and the frequency, type, duration, and intensity of mentoring contacts.
Effects , or results, consequences, outcomes, or impacts.
What kinds of changes came about as a direct or indirect effect of the activities? Two examples are bonding between adult mentors and youth and increased self-esteem among youth. Short-term or immediate effects. In the On Track example, this would be that young people who participate in mentoring improve their self-confidence and understand the importance of staying in school. Mid-term or intermediate effects. Mentored students improve their grades and remain in school.
Longer-term or ultimate effects.
High school graduation rates rise, thus giving graduates more employment opportunities, greater financial stability, and improved health status. Here are two important notes about constructing and refining logic models. Outcome or Impact? For good or for ill? Choosing the right level of detail: the importance of utility and simplicity It may help at this point to consider what a logic model is not. In the end, you may have some or all of the following family of models, each one differing in scope: View from Outer Space.
This overall road map shows the major pathways of change and the full spectrum of effects. This view answers questions such s: Do the activities follow a single pathway, or are there separate pathways that converge down the line? How far does the chain of effects go? How do our program activities align with those of other organizations?
What other forces might influence the effects that we hope to see? Where can we anticipate feedback loops and in what direction will they travel?
Are there significant time delays between any of the connections? View from the Mountaintop. This closer view focuses on a specific component or set of components, yet it is still broad enough to describe the infrastructure, activities, and full sequence of effects. This view answers the same questions as the view from outer space, but with respect to just the selected component s.
You are here
You Are Here. This view expands on a particular part of the sequence, such as the roles of different stakeholders, staff, or agencies in a coalition, and functions like a flow chart for someone's work plan. It is a specific model that outlines routine processes and anticipated effects. This is the view that you might need to understand quality control within the initiative. Moving forward from the activities also known as forward logic.
This approach explores the rationale for activities that are proposed or currently under way. It is driven by But why? But why do we need them to better understand the issues affecting kids? But why would they create policies and programs to support mentoring?
But why would new policies make a difference? That same line of reasoning could also be uncovered using if-then statements: If we focus on briefing legislators, then they will better understand the issues affecting kids.